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Knowing Ganoderma in Palm Oil Plantation



Knowing Ganoderma in Palm Oil Plantation

InfoSAWIT, JAKARTA – Stem rot disease is one deadly disease in palm oil plantation. It is from ganoderma sp. To avoid it, it is better to know it in the first place to implement kinds of prevention to handle.

It may be horrifying when listening to the name. What would be if it attacks our palm oil plantation? Ganoderma is not new one in the plantation but in every single day, the plantations which have been planted for two generations would get the symptoms. But the new ones could get the same.

The disease from the fungus is not a regular one for palm oil plantations. If it once attacks, the plantation (trees) would come to an end and would make loss for the planters. After it is researched, the infection of ganoderma could spread through the spore and the contact of the roots. If in the soil, there is inoculum, it would spread fast and unavoidable.

If the trees are planted in the soil where inoculum is in, how great we handle or nurse the infected trees, they would be attacked too. Many researchers are challenged to prevent the disease, such as, using technic and doing seed research to get anti or tolerant ganoderma.

It is no doubt that the palm oil seed producers nationally offer the seeds which are tolerant to ganoderma. It could happen that this would be the solution. But it is better to know what ganoderma is actually. By knowing the first symptom, the attack could be handled well by preventing or at least, there would be isolation not to spread to other locations.

 

First Symptom and Identification

Actually, to know the first attack of ganoderma, it could be identified by the symptom. There are four symptoms to identify, they are,

The first, 3 or more spear leaves are not open when the tree is not lack of water (score 1)

The second, 3 or more spear leaves are not open when the tree is not lack of water and the lower part of the midrib is naturally sengkleh (score 2)

The third, 3 or more spear leaves are not open when the tree is not lack of water and the lower part of the midrib is naturally sengkleh and fungus (the body of fruit/basidiocarp) is found (score 3)

The fourth, 3 or more spear leaves are not open when the tree is not lack of water and the lower part of the midrib is naturally sengkleh, fungus is found (the body of fruit/basidiocarp) and every midrib is in sengkleh unless the spear leaves (score 4)

The fifth, 3 or more spear leaves are not open when the tree is not lack of water and the lower part of the midrib is naturally sengkleh, fungus is found (the body of fruit/basidiocarp) and it is fallen down (score 5).

 

Kinds of Ganoderma

As a matter of fact, there are many kinds of Ganoderma, for instance, in North Sumatera, it was reported that there was Ganoderma boninense, in Malaysia there was Ganoderma miniatocinctum, there was Ganoderma australis, Ganoderma zonatum, and others.

It is not important to know the kinds but if the fruiting body or basidiocarp is found in a good or healthy tree and there are symptoms as mentioned above, the Ganoderma is parasite (pathogen). It needs to identify the kinds in laboratory that analyzes Ganoderma from its DNA.

One thing to notice is that when taking (the sample), dealing, and sending the sample, it needs to be clean from contaminant. Not every laboratory has Ganoderma analysis. If it exists, it will be for internal needs only. That is why it needs to communicate with the laboratory.

By: Marlon Sitanggang, Head Divisi Agronomi PT USTP

Source: InfoSAWIT, February 2019

 

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