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Recognize the Spread Structure and Mechanism to Prevent Basal Stem Rot Disease

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Recognize the Spread Structure and Mechanism to Prevent Basal Stem Rot Disease

InfoSAWIT, JAKARTA - Basal stem rot disease in palm oil is a serious issue that threatens palm oil plantation productivity, production, and growth. The disease happened for many pathogens, including kinds of fungi which is biologically classified, namely in mushroom category.

One pathogen known as the main factor in basal stem rot disease is Ganoderma. But not only one Ganoderma should be responsible because there are many kinds of Ganoderma, such as, Ganoderma cocoicola dan Ganoderma zonatum.

Cico Jhon Karunia Simamora of Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Tanjungpura said the pathogen spreads not only in rot stem but also to the upper part of palm oil tree, specifically from the bunch to much upper parts.

Though Ganoderma is always blamed as the factor of basal stem rot disease, the fact showed that many other pathogens that could cause the same. That is why the disease needs deeper understanding about kinds of pathogen involved.

There are many mechanisms about the spread of the disease, such as, through spore. It is a small microscopic particle that spreads through air or land. “Besides, there are propagules which is the strong structure made by the pathogen. It can be seen in infected wood tissue. Propagules can survive in land for some years and be the source of disease spread,” Cico said in an event that Gabungan Pelaku dan Pemerhati Sistem Integrasi Sapi-Kelapa Sawit (Gapensiska) that InfoSAWIT attended in January 2024 in Pontianak.

The spore – like pathogen structures also play its roles to spread the disease. Pathogen spore like in Ganoderma, has strong/thick wall made of many materials, such as, hemicellulose and phenol. The structures enable spore to survive in land for many years even until there is replanting.

It is important to understand about the structures and mechanism of pathogen spread to control basal stem rot disease. It also needs further study to develop more effective strategy control to protect palm oil trees from the attack.

Besides, the good agricultural practices would help to minimize the spread of such disease, including how to manage animals’ feces, good sanitation in palm oil plantations. By having better understanding about the spread and mechanism spread of the disease, it is hoped to get more effective ways to protect palm oil plantations and industries. (T2)

For more, please read Majalah InfoSAWIT, February 2024